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The State Definition
The state : A state definition is defined as a politically organized body of people occupying a definite geographic territory with an organized government, free from external control and with coercive power to secure obedience from its citizens and other people living in the country .
NOTE : The state as it is used in the above note are not component part of a country, the state doesn’t mean, like in Nigeria now we have Oyo state, Edo state, kwara state and lagos state, etc, the state as it is used in government is , Nigeria, USA, China and India, as a country not as a state.
What am saying is that, the state is used as a country not as a regional area.top↑
Attributes Of A State
There are six characteristics of a state;
a] Government : A state must have a government, that will steer its affairs and performs its function on behalf of the state.
The existence and survival of a state are maintained by its government.
b] Permanence : A state does not change, that is, it is permanent unlike government which is changed periodically.
c] Population : A state must have a given number of people that it can occupied it without minimum or maximum, for a state to exist.
A state must have population.
d] Recognition : A state must be recognised both internally and externally.
The people of a state must recognise and realise the corporate existence of their state and also the international states must recognise your existing state.
e] Territory : A state must have a definite territory with no limit to its size.
This territory must have clear out boundaries that will separate it from other states.top↑
NOTE : The term territory refers not only hard surface of the earth but also other things like Natural Resources.
Natural Resources like water, rivers, mountains and air space, etc.
f] Sovereignty : A state must possess its supreme power to enable it to make laws and execute it.
A sovereign state must be free from external control.
Yea that all on characteristics of a state now let go to Relationship between the state and the government.top↑
Relationship Between The State And The Government
The state and the government are complementary to each other.
The government is formed as a result of the existence of state.
The government acts as an agency to the state by maintaining its existence and carries out its function.
Note : A state cannot survive without any form of government or the other, no matter how primitive such a government be.
Also note, The state and the government are not identical, they are different from each other.
The state is a entire community of a person made up by the government and governed. So the government serve as an agency or machinery to the state by its existence and its function are carried out.top↑
So therefore, the state is an association while the government is an organisation.
The component of state are those six attributes of state which are government, permanence, population, recognition, territory and sovereignty, while the main organs of the government are Organs Of The Government (The Legislature), The Executive and The Judiciary.
Hugo Grotius Theory
State is permanent while government changes without destroying the corporate existence of the state.
That is why Hugo Grotius describe that “states are immortal” is very appropriate, that is, Hugo makes it clear that “States are permanent”.
Sovereignty is an attitude of the state and of the government but the government exercises sovereignty on behalf of the state while government is the personification of the state,
Hence the state is a mere abstraction.
Differences Between The State And A Nation
For the fact that the state and the nation share certain characteristics or attributes that doesn’t mean the state and the nation mean the same thing.
We know that both the state and a nation are made up of people
a] The difference between the state and a nation is that;
The state is made up of people that share homogeneous or heterogeneous characters while a nation is made up people that share only homogeneous characters.top↑
What am saying is that, A nation is an association or a community of people united together by a common ties.
This association or community of people are associated with a particular territory usually speak a single language and have the same political aspirations and consciousness of unity.
It is this consciousness of unity that is referred to as nationalism or nationality.
b] Another different character is that a nation have all the characteristics or attributes possessed by the state except sovereignty. For a nation to attain the status of statehood, a nation must gain independent and therefore have supreme power to enable it make law and enforce it. And also a nation has no definite territory unlike a state.
E.g The present Palestinians struggling for a definite homeland.top↑
c] A state in spite of its differences in national historical origins, common religious belief of its people and still characterised by a strong sense of national unity, culture, is described as a nation-state and common ethnicity.
Examples of nation-states are USSR, Switzerland and U.S.A.
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Those are the distinguished differences between a nation and the state, now let go to Society.top↑
Next Topic : The Society