Geography : The Solar System Composition And The Dwarf Planets

the solar system composition

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The Solar System

The Solar System: Comprises the sun and its ten major planets with their satellites.
All the ten planets revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits. This orbits is not perfectly round, but over in shape. This ten major planets are, Mercury, venus, earth, mars, Jupiter, Saturn, uranus, Neptune and pluto and 2014 UZ224 (Newly Discovered).top↑

Note : There are other numerous planets discovered which they are all group called The Dwarf Planet which was adopted in 2006 meaning planetary bodies which are neither planets nor satellite.

Now let analyse them one after the other;

The Sun

1] The sun is at the centre of the solar system which does not move.

2] All the planets reflect light only by the reflected light from the sun.

3] The sun is about 3,000,000 times as big as the earth.

4] The sun has a surface temperature of about 6000°C and increases to about 20, 000,000 in the interior.

5] The sun is a huge bail of hot gases, all over its surface area with fiery gases which leaps up in whirls of glowing flames like a↑


A satellite is a small body which revolves round a planet.
E.g The moon,
The moon : is the natural satellite of the earth.

The Stars

Stars : the stars is bigger than the earth on which we live, some of the star layers have been estimated to be many millions of times the size of the earth. It also believe that the earth alone contains as many as 100,000 million stars.
Stars are not randomly scattered in the space, rather they occur in what is called Galaxies or nebulas.

The Ten Planets


1] Mercury : is the smallest, the hottest and the closest planet to the sun, it contains life because of its hotness and it is about 57,900,000 km from the↑


2] Venus : it is often regarded as the earth because of their close proximity in size, mass, weight and density.
Venus contain no living things and it is about 101, 200,000 km away from the sun. It takes venus 225 days to complete it’s revolution.


3] Earth : it is the only planet which supports lifes, it has one satellite which is the moon, the moon revolves eastward around the earth once in every twenty seven days.
It takes the earth 365¼ days ( a year) to complete its orbit.
The earth is 148,800 km away from the sun and 383,628km away from the↑


4] Mars : it is the next planet after the earth to have possibility of some planet lifes, the mars have two satellite and about 227,200 km away from the sun and it takes 687 days to complete its orbit.


5] Jupiter : it is the largest planet in the solar system, its surface contains gases like hydrogen, helium and methane. It has twelve satellite and it is distinguished from other planets by its circular light and dark bonds.
The distance between Jupiter and the sun is more than 780 million Km.


6] Saturn : it is the second largest planet after Jupiter, it has three rings and nine satellites.
It takes saturn 29½ years to complete its orbit with a distance of 147,600,000 km away from the↑


7] Uranus : it orbits around the sun in a clockwise direction from east to west.
Uranus has five satellite which revolve around it, uranus complete its orbit round the sun in 84 years with a distance of 2,8,5,4,400,000 km away from the sun.


8] Neptune : neptune is very cold with two satellites. It takes about 165 years to complete its orbit with a distance of 4,468, 800 km away from the sun.


9] Pluto : pluto is the coldest and the farthest planet from the sun before the discovery of 2014 UZ224

Pluto is the only planet with no satellite, it has the longest orbit (only before the discovery of 2014 UZ224) around the sun, it takes about 247 years to complete its orbit and a distance of 5,850,000,000 km away from the sun. top↑

2014 UZ224

10] 2014 UZ224 : is the recently discovered planet by an astrophysicist in the University Of Michigan, David Gerdes in conjunction with his team of undergraduate students.

Brief : Astrophysicist : is a person that study astronomy, that is, the study of physical properties of celestial bodies and objects along with the interaction between the celestial bodies and radiation within the space between them.

David Gerdes and his undergraduate team discovered the 2014 UZ224 dwarf planet with the aid of Dark Energy Camera, an invented chile instrument constructed to observe the movement of the galaxies and the exploding stars (a.k.a the supernovas) from the↑

The Supernovas : are also called the exploding stars, that is, a star which increases its brightness to a great amount to that of sun.

2014 UZ224 was calculated to be 13.7 billion away from the sun and its takes about 1,100 years to complete its orbit and about 530 kilometers in size.

Aphelion And Perihelion


a] Aphelion :it is when the planet is farthest from the sun.


b] Perihelion : it is when the planet is nearest to the sun.


Eclipse : As the moon revolves round the earth and the earth revolves round the sun, it happens that at times all three are on a straight line, when this happens, the light from the sun is obstruct from reaching the earth or the↑
Basically, Eclipse is when the sun, the earth and the moon are on a straight line causing the light ray coming from the sun to not be able to reach the earth or the moon.

Types Of Eclipse

There are three types of eclipse, which are;

Lunar Eclipse

1] Eclipse of the moon or lunar eclipse : it occurs when the earth comes between the moon and the sun.

Solar Eclipse

2] Eclipse of the sun or solar eclipse : it occurs when the moon comes between the earth and the sun there by causing partial or total darkness of the earth which is called penumbra and umbra↑

Annular Eclipse

3] The third eclipse is not common in geography but in physics which is called annular eclipse
This occurs when the earth is between the sun and the moon but the light coming from the sun cannot reaches the earth due to the intersection of light rays.
I will explain this better when we get to Light in physics.

Dawn And Twilight


a] Dawn : refers to the brief period between sunrise and full day light.


b] Twilight : refers to the brief period between sunset and complete darkness.

Dawn and twilight occurs when the earth receives diffused reflected light from the sun while it is still below the↑

Reason Why Twilight And Dawn Occurs

a] In the case of twilight, there is little or no light at the equator because the sun rises and sets rapidly.

b] The sun rises almost vertically from the horizontal at the equator.

c] The twilight occurs longer at high href=”…its-calculations/”>latitudes because the sunsets more slowly.
Therefore there are longer periods of twilight than dawn at the arctic↑

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