The Executive Arm
After Organs Of The Government (The Legislature) has made a law, the next is to execute and enforce the law, the body responsible for this is, The executive.
The executive is the organ of government that implement, execute and impose or enforce laws, policies and directives made given by the legislature arm of the government.
Laws are not made and carry out by the same organ ,
There is an organ responsible for law making and there is also a separate organ responsible for law execution and interpretation of laws in a country which are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary respectively.top↑
The executive therefore sees to it that laws made in a country are obeyed and also submits to the legislature any changes it deems necessary to be made in laws of land.
So therefore, The executive carries out administrative duties and render services to the people of the country, etc.
The members of the executive includes ; the Governors, the President or Prime Minister, the Commissioners, the Ministers, the head of state and other officials and civil servants.
Types Of The Executive Arm Of The Government
a]Single Executive or Presidential Executive : it is a system of government in which all executive powers of government are vested in the President.
The President is the head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Members of the executive.
What am saying is this;
The President and his Ministers are not members of the legislature.
Countries that practice this system are Nigeria, Chile, U.S.A, Tanzania and Brazil, etc.top↑
b] Dual Executive or Parliamentary Executive : It is a system of government in which one person is the head of state, while another person is the head of government.
The head of state may be a monarch or ceremonial president, while the head of government is usually the prime minister in most cases.
NOTE : In parliamentary executive, all the members of the executive are also members of parliament.
Countries that practice this system are Britain, Italy, Nigeria, Belgium and Sweden etc, in her first republic.
In these countries, the legislature provides the source of authority for the executive.top↑
c] Collegiate Executive : it is a system in which a number of people forms a council which rotates the chairmanship of the council and leadership of government in turn among its members.
This system was first used during Olympio’s rulership in Togo due to its intricacies and complications.
Note : this system is not a common form of administration because of its disadvantages and complications
Let go to the Function and aims of the executive;
Functions And Aims Of The Executive Arm Of The Government
a] Execution Of Laws : Laws made by the legislature are executed or implemented by the executive arm by making sure that the law made are obeyed.top↑
b] General Administration : The executive are responsible for carrying out general administrative functions such as;
(1) Recruitment of civil servants and exercising disciplinary control over them,
(2) Provision of foods, shelter and rendering of other essential services to the people of the country and,
(3) Provision of employment opportunities for the citizens.
c] Military Functions : The head of executive performs essential military functions as the commander-in-chief of the Armed forces.
d] Making of Budgets : it is the executive that prepares the total proposed financial expenditure and revenue of the government in every new financial year.top↑
e] Giving Assents To Bills : It is the head of the executive arm that sign or gives assent to bills before they can become laws.
f] Dissolution Of The Parliament : In some countries like Britain, the executive performs the function of ordering the dissolution of the parliament.
g] Maintenance Of External Relations : it is the duty of the executive to maintain external relations and sign treaties, etc, with other countries especially the friendly ones.
h] Maintenance Of Law And Orders : it is the duty of the executive to maintain law and order in a country through the enforcement of law and order by the use of police and other forces.top↑
I] Appointment Of Judicial Officials : it is the duty of the executive to appoints the Chief Justice of the federation and other high ranking officials of the judiciary like judges subject to ratification by the legislature.
j] Provision of Welfare Services : it is the duty of the executive to perform the main function of the government, which is the provision of welfare services to the citizens.
k] Delegated Legislation : The executive is also delegated the power to make minor laws like statutory orders, edicts, etc, while the legislature makes the major laws.
l] Initiation Of Bills To The Legislature : the executive initiates and submits bills to the legislature to pass into law for good governance of the country.
NOTE : this happens in sometimes but not all the times.top↑
m] Control Of External Trade : The executive has the power to control what is to be imported and exported in a country.
n] Pardoning Of Convicts : The executive has the power to performs crucial judicial function of pardoning and reprieving convicted offenders in a country.
o] Formulation Of Policies : The executive has the power to formulate policies that guide the general administration of people in the country as a whole not only the citizens.
p] Information Dissemination : The executive keeps the public aware of the activities and the policies of the government thereby bridging the communication gap between the government and the governed.top↑
That is all on the executive, our next topic is The judiciary.
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