Lexis And Structure Definition

Lexis And Structure Definition

Previous Class : Complement And Adjunct

English Language – Grammer : Lexis

I believe you may all have heard of LEXIS and STRUCTURE.
here is my question, do you know what LEXIS and STRUCTURE imply?

There are two areas in English language, which are lexis and structure,

What is Lexis ?

Lexis is an aspect of English language where sentences are predicated on a system of the relationship between words.
So simply Lexis is the set of all words and phrases in language, and those words or phrases are called Lexical items, you know in the use of English language as a subject we don’t really need definition,  so straight to business,top↑
we have eight lexical items which are ;

a] Noun e.g Sola, Lagos, Goat and tree, etc.

b] Pronoun e.g She, he, they, who and we, etc.

c] Verb e.g Dance, eat and go, etc.

d] Adverb e.g Everyday, everything, everyone, everywhere, enough and quickly, etc.

e] Adjective e.g beautiful and handsome, etc.

f] Interjection e.g Oh!, etc.

g] Preposition e.g Under, etc.

h] Conjunction e.g So, and, since, but, because and between, etc.

All this are called Lexical items or Lexis.

Aspect Of Lexis In The Use Of English Language.

As a student sitting for any English examination either O’level or A’level even if you are in higher institution, there are seven aspects of English language that you must have prepare your self for,top↑
These are;
a] Semantics : semantics in English language simply means the meanings of words.

b] Diction : diction in English language means the appropriate use of words, that is, most appropriate words

c] Synonymy : synonymy means similar words, that is, nearest in meaning.

d] Antonymy : antonymy means opposite words, that is, opposite in meaning.

I believe we are all familiar with Synonymy and antonymy right ?

e] Polysemy : from the word Poly, guess and tell me what do you think is the meaning, think first before continue reading

What polysemy means in English language is words with more than one meaning, So do you guess right?

f] Homophones : homophones are similar-sounding words, that is, word that sound similar.
E.g Tall and Raw, look and hook or book, rich and reach, ruth and route or root, etc.top↑

g] Collocation : collocation in English language means the company that a word keeps.

Those are the seven aspects of lexis that we have in English language.

Note : for a student sitting for jamb, waec, neco or any O’level examination, under Lexis, you should prepare yourself with most appropriate word, nearest in meaning and opposite in meaning even if you are sitting for common entrance examination.top↑

And most important don’t regard the dictionary as your final authority,

What am saying is this, when a given word is used in a sentence, don’t use dictionary to find the meaning of the words but instead use the environment, the surrounding and the circumstances of the word.

Note : sometimes words in a sentence have different meaning with the dictionary meaning, because the meaning of a word in a sentence depends on the environment of the word and how it is used in the sentence, especially in an examination.top↑


In English language, Structure is refer to as the definite established rules of a language, for the combination of words to be meaningful in that language,

So basically, Structure is used to arrange or put words together in orderly ways by combining the words (lexical items) together with the rules.

a] Many a / him

a) boys/know
b) boys/knows
c) boy/knows
d) boy/know

What do you think the answer would be?

The first thing to do is analysis the sentence or statement,

In order to analyse this, we need to check whether the sentence contain the four elements of sentences, I hope you still remember what those are?
They are SPCA
S is the subject, that is, the doer of the action.top↑

P is the predicator, that is, the verb, the action words.

C is the complement, that is, what is been talked about in the statement or the receiver of the action.

And the last,
A is the adjunct, that is, the adverb and adverbials, and you should always remember that, adjunct is not compulsory in forming a sentence.

So look at the above question, and see if it has all the element,

Remember that singular noun goes with singular verb and plural noun goes with plural verb,

Note whenever you see many a the noun that preceded it must be singular and the verb should be singular also.top↑

Seeing many a boy mean the same thing as many boys

So the correct answer to that question will be;

many a boy / knows him,

I believe you know the reason why the verb is singular (knows)? It because the noun is singular,

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More Examples

Example 2

The teachers, the principals, our parents or my john to blame

a) is
b) are

Think first, what do you think the answer should be?

First find the subject,
You see all those, The teachers, the principals, our parents all that is to deceive you,
The subject there is mr john

Because the first three noun ( the teachers, the principals and our parents) are not the or with the subject,

Assuming the question was like this,

b) The teachers, the principals, our parents and Mr john to blame.

You can see that this one is different from the above one because in this one, the subjects are join together with and not or

So the answer to the question is, is because Mr john is the subject and it is singular, but to that second example it is are because all the noun mention there are the subject,

Art Department

I will explain this better when will get to The Rules Of Concord, which is our next topic,
Thank you for always reading

Don’t forget to drop your comment, it a motivation, so always remember.top↑

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