Complement And Adjunct Elements

complement and adjunct elements

In our last visit we discussed about Predicator, I believe now we all know what a PREDICATOR in english language means.

Today we are discussing about the second element, COMPLEMENT [C] in a sentence.


What is a complement in English language or let say in a sentence.
Complement is the receiver of an action in a sentence. Let me explain this: you see when an action occur or take place in a sentence, there will the doer that is, the person or thing that performs the action and also there will be someone that receives the action, the person or thing that receives the action is the COMPLEMENT.

So whoever or whatever receives the action [P] PREDICATOR is the↑

She beats Ade. Now let look at it together:
She and He are both nouns and beats is the predicator because beats is an action word.
Out of those two nouns one of them as to be the subject, that is, the one that performs the action beats and one of it as be the complement the one that receives the action beats. So which one is the subject and which one is the complement?. Now let analyse:
“She beats Ade”
Who beats Ade”?, she,
So she is the doer that is the subject and who receives the action of beats? Yes,↑

Let look at another example:
He likes banana.
You can see here that this one is different from the first example. Yes, so let analyse this one also. He is the subject, likes is the predicator, we can see here that banana does not performs any action, but it is the thing been talked about.
He likes banana. Who likes banana?,
He , and what does He likes? banana.

A complement can also exist in to form as a single word and also as a group of↑

Let analyse this two examples.
(i) They need some food .
the complement here is some food.
Check this example also:
(ii) We all know the answer.
The complement here is The answer.
(iii) She is a queen.
The complement here is Queen.
Check this one;
(iv) The book is under the table.
The complement here is the table and the subject is the book.
(v) We don’t like each other.
The complement here is each other and the subject is we.
(vi) I like↑
The complement is oranges and the subject is I.

I hope now you understand what a complement is in a sentence.


ADJUNCT is the last element to make a complete sentence.
I hope we all still remember the first three elements: which are subject, predicator and complement.

Now let’s talk about ADJUNCT as an element of a sentence.
ADJUNCT simply stands for Adverbials and Adverbs.
What is an Adverb? An Adverb is a word that tell us a lot or more things about the Verb.

Adverbs tell use the PLACE, the TIME,the REASON, the CONCESSION, and the FREQUENCY etc, of the↑

For example:
Ola loves reading : very much.
: everyday.
: at night.
: Because he’s a art
: although he doesn’t
understand English

Now let us analyse:

Ola is the Subject.

Loves is the Predicator.

Reading is the complement.

Very much is ADJUNT [Adverb of degree -……Very. Ola doesn’t love reading much but very much] The word “Very” shows the high degree of how much he loves reading.

Everyday is also ADJUNCT [Adverb of frequency – of how often Ola loves reading].

At night is also ADJUNCT [ Adverb of Time – the time at which he reads].top↑

Because ] also ADJUNCT [Adverbial
he’s a art ] clause of reason] why
student ] does he loves reading
Because he’s a art student.

Although he] ADJUNCT [ Adverbial
Doesn’t ] clause of concession]
English ]
Language ]

So henceforth, you shouldn’t write any sentence, which has no subject or predicator. I have stressed that, the “[P] predicator”is the most important element, when you make a clause, start with Subject + Predicator [ under predicator choose any one of the patterns of arranging verbs] and if find it necessary, to add more information about the action, then add the↑

So now we have four ways to write a sentence.

a] Subject + Predicator only.
E.g Ola goes.

b] Subject + Predicator + Complement only.
E.g Ola goes to school.

C]Predicator only.
E.g Go!!!
” Command tone”.
2) Come !!!

d] Subject + Predicator + Complement + Adjunct.
E.g Ola goes to school everyday.

NOTE: You cannot have only the Subject (Ola) or only the complement(home) or only Adjunct(everyday).But you can have only the predicator [P] as in command tone. DON’T FORGET THIS, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT.

Art Department

Other examples of command tone are:
Go!, speak!,↑

Note : you can also have a predicator and a complement only, like;
E.g come here!!! but still in command tone.

To analyse that only predicator, can be the only element in a sentence.

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We all know that when you used a command tone you are actually talking to someone.
Before I could say Go in a command tone that means am talking to someone.

So basically PREDICATOR [P] ONLY is simply equal to SP [Subject and predicator].


I hope by now you should be able to write a good and complete sentence.
Our next topic we be on GRAMMAR where we be talking about lexis and structure.

Next Topic :Lexis And Structure.

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