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The Structure And Organs Of Government
Structure and organs of government : is defined as the structure divisions of the powers of government into different segments.
Organ : an organ is a structure of government that takes part in fulfilling the general functions of a government.top↑
Functions Or Organs Or Aims Of Government
These three functions of government have complementary functions but different functions ,
Their main function are;
(1) The legislature is for law making.
(2) The Executive is for law execution or implementation.
So let analyse it one by one.
Let start with the legislature.
The legislature : is the making of laws and enforcing it by the assigned government.
The legislature is given different kind of names in different countries like in Nigeria, we call it National or State of Assembly, United States call it Congress and Britain call it Parliament.
The legislature can be one or two housing depending on the country.
Functions Of The Legislature
The aim of legislature is Law making;
a] Law making : Legislature are to make laws that direct and guide the affairs of the nation and assure the country peace and progress.
b] Training of Future Leaders : Legislature serves as an avenue for training of country’s future leaders.top↑
c] Amendment of The Constitution : it is the duty of the Legislature to amend the constitution of a country whenever it is decree necessary.
d] House of Representatives of The People : The legislature acts as the house of those elected to represent and speak for the people of the country.
e] Explore or Probe Functions : it is duty of the legislature to check the activities of the other organs of the government by the power of setting up panels to investigate the activities of any department of the government.
f) Control of The Executive : The legislature is empowered to check and control the activities of the executive organ of the government in order to avoid misrule.top↑
g] Removal of Judges : The legislature has the power to remove or recommend for removal any justice like Chief justice who fails to perform his judicial functions in the country with the legislative arms.
h] Removal of The President : The legislature has the power of impeaching the President of a country if the President fails to abides with the tenets of the constitution which he swore to abide and protect.
I] Approval of Appointments : The legislature has the power to approve the appointments made by the President or The Prime Minister of the country.
J] Platform for Expression Of Public Opinion : The members of the public express their public opinion in the legislature through their elected representatives who enjoy what is known as parliamentary immunity which protects them from legal action.top↑
k] Medium Of Enlightenment And Education : The legislature enlightens and educates people of a country through debates by its members.
l] Control Of Public Expenditure : The legislature has the power to controls and approves the proposed financial expenditure of the executive arm.
m] Ratification Of International Treaties : The legislature has the power to approve treaties entered into by the President or Prime Minister with other countries.
n] Judicial Functions : The legislature in some countries servers as the highest judicial authority or the last court of appeal.
E.g The House of Lords in Britain.
o] Dissolution Of The Parliament : The legislature has the power of dissolution of the parliament when it deems it necessary or at its expiration.top↑
Types Of Legislature
There two types of legislature, which are Unicameral or Unicameralism and Bicameral.
Unicameral Or Unicameralism Legislature
Unicameral or Unicameralism legislature : is a situation in a country where there is only one legislative house or body that makes laws.
Once a bill has been passed by the assembly, it goes to President for his assent since there is no second house.
The counties that involve in Unicameral legislature are countries like Kenya, Ghana, Gambia, sierra leone, etc, all this counties have once adopted Unicameral legislature.
Bicameral Or Bicemaralism Legislature
Bicameral legislature : is a situation in a country where there is two legislative houses or bodies.
Before a bill is presented to the President for his assent, the bill must first pass through the two houses or bodies.
This type of legislature is adopted by many countries than Unicameral legislature because of its numerous advantages and also because bicameral legislature is more popular than Unicameral.
The counties that adopted this legislature are countries like Nigeria, Canada, U.S.A, Australia, India and Britain.top↑
In Britain these two legislative houses are known as House of Common which is the lower house and House of Lords which is the upper house.
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In U.S.A and Nigeria, there are House of representatives which is the lower house and the Senate which is the upper house. top↑
Next Topic : Adv. and disadv. of Unicameral legislature
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