Noun And Pronoun

Noun And Pronoun

Noun And Pronoun

Previous Class :English Language (Lexis And Structure)

Noun

Noun : as the common definition for noun, as the name of any person, place, things or animal. But the simply definition for noun is that, a noun is a naming word. It can also be defined as a word that identifies a person, a place, an animal or a thing in a sentence

E.g, James as a person, Lagos as a place, phone as a thing and cat as an animal.

Types Of Noun

a] Proper noun : is a noun that gives a particular or a specific name to a person, animal, place or thing.
E.g : Mary as a person, Canada as a place, Dog as an animal and table as a thing.top↑
Examples in sentences
1) James lives in Canada.
2) The book is on the table.
3) The dog is barking so loudly.

b] Collective noun : is a noun that gives a single name to a group of persons, things, places or animals.
E.g
1) congregation which means a group of people as a person,

2) Flock which means a large number of animals as an animal,

3) Africa which means a continent, and a continent is a group of countries as a place,

4) bunch which means a group of things as a thing.

Examples in sentences
1) I’m going to a congregation today.
2) There are bunch of people outside.

c] Common noun : is a noun that gives a general name to a person, place, animal or thing of the same nature.top↑

Types Of Common Noun

There are two types of common noun which are countable and uncountable noun.

1) Countable nouns are nouns that can be quantified into units and numbers, that is, countable nouns are nouns that can be counted.
E.g Person, Table, Chair, Cat, School, building, houses, etc.

2) Uncountable nouns : are nouns that cannot be quantified into units and numbers, that is, uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted.
E.g water, oil, information, Mankind, Knowledge, sugar, etc.
Example in sentence :
a) Sugar makes tea to have a good taste.

d] Abstract noun : abstract noun is a noun that gives names to qualities or things that cannot be seen or touched but can be felt or imagined.
Abstract noun can also be defined as nouns that are not affected by the senses of touch and sight
E.g Air ( coldness or warmth), patience, obedience, happiness, sadness, jealousy, intelligence, joy etc.

Example in sentence
1) Education kills ignorance
2) Happiness kills sadness

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e] Compound noun : is a noun that gives name to two or more words that are joined or combined together to form a new but a single word.
E.g
1) Dash + board = Dashboard.
2) Dead + line = deadline.
3) when + ever = whenever.
4) Every + thing = Everything.
5) Class + room = Classroom.
6) Chalk + board = Chalkboard, etc.
You can see that, each noun can stand on its own, but when it is used with another noun it becomes a Compound noun.
Those single word that can stand alone are called Simple noun.

f] Verbal noun : are nouns that give name to a noun that takes the outlook of a verb. That is, verbal nouns are nouns that give name to nouns that are used in place of verb.top↑

Types Of Verbal Noun

There are two types of verbal noun, which are gerund and infinitive.

1) Gerund verbal nouns are nouns that end in ing
E.g Talking, Smoking, Dancing, Eating, watching , etc.

Examples in sentences :
1) Smoking is dangerous.
2)Dancing is my pleasure.
3) Eating is healthy.

2) Infinitive verbal nouns are nouns that starts with a prepositional “to”
E.g
1) To smoke is dangerous.
2) To eat is healthy.
3) To dance is my pleasure.

Note : Any types of noun mentioned above can stand as the subject and as well as the object of any sentence.top↑

Functions Of Noun

1) A noun serves as the subject of a sentence.
E.g
She hates me. (She is the subject).

2) A noun serves as the direct object in a sentence.
E.g
She hates me ( me is the direct object)

3) A noun serves as the indirect object in a sentence
E.g
She gave the note to me (me is the indirect object)

4) A noun serves as the complement of subject in a sentence.
E.g
1) James is an author. ( author is the complement of the subject, James).

2) Mary is a teacher. ( teacher is the complement of the subject, Mary).

5) A noun also serves as the complement of an object in a sentence.
E.g
1) The police know the boy as a law breaker. ( law breaker is the complement of the object “boy”).
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Concept Of Persons In Noun

Interaction in English starts with the concept of persons, which ensures effective mastery of the language as without it, no impression can properly take place.

There are three forms of concept of persons in noun, which are, the 1st person, the 2nd person, and the 3rd person.

1) The 1st person (the speaker) : means the person that talks or speaks at a particular time.

2) The 2nd person (the listener) : means the person that listens to the first person’s speech at a particular time.

3) The 3rd person : means the person or thing been talked about by the 1st person at a particular time.

Note : These three concepts, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons, are not permanently static but in an interchangeable order, as a speaker at a particular time can become a listener in a minute later and vice versa.top↑

Forms Of Person

There are two forms of person in English language, they are the singular and the plural form.

Examples
a) 1st person
I as singular and we as plural.

b) 2nd person
You as singular and also You as plural.

c) 3rd person
He or She or It as singular and They as plural.

Pronoun

Pronoun is a word used instead or in lieu of a noun.
Pronoun is a word or phrase that can be used to replace noun or noun phrase in a sentence. What makes pronoun to fit in lieu of noun is because pronoun can be used as a subject or direct and indirect object in a sentence.top↑

Examples of pronoun She, He, Her, His, It, We, Who, Which, Whose, Whom, They, That, Us, I, Them, Everyone, Everything, Everybody, Anybody, Anyone, Whichever, Whoever, Whosoever, Anyone, Each, Nobody, These, This, etc. There are numerous pronouns in the use of English language, but those are the common ones.

Types Of Pronoun

a] Personal pronoun : as its name suggests, personal, it means the pronoun that is actually restricted to a person, animal, thing or place.
There are two types of personal pronoun, which are the subjective pronoun and the objective pronoun e.g We, She, He, I, You, They, Them, Him, Her, Us, Me, etc.
Examples in sentences
1) The teacher knows the boy. ( Subjective pronoun)

2) The boy knows him ( Objective pronoun)

b] Possessive pronoun: is the pronoun that indicates ownership, that is, possessive pronoun is the type of pronoun that attributes ownership of a particular thing to the Subject or the object of a sentence.top↑

There are two types of possessive pronoun, they are Adjectival and pronominal possessive pronoun.
Examples of adjectival possessive pronoun are, their, My, Your, etc.
Example in sentence ( adjectival)
1) James is their father.

Examples of pronominal possessive pronoun are, Mine, Theirs, Yours, His, Ours, etc.
Example in sentence ( pronominal)
1) That book is Mine.

c] Reflexive pronoun : it is when an action bounces back to the doer of the action or to the receiver of the action of a sentence.
E.g Myself, Ourselves, Herself, Himself, Themselves.

Examples in sentences:
1) We almost injured ourselves yesterday.
2) I hate myself.

Another type of pronoun that takes the semblance of reflexive pronoun is emphatic pronoun.
emphatic Pronoun is the pronoun that tells more about a person or a thing.top↑
E.g
1) He himself acknowledged the fact.
2) I myself was there.

Note
a) For more than one person including you, use ourselves

b) For 2nd person singular use yourself and for 2nd person plural use Yourselves.

c) For an unspecified individual, use Himself or Herself

d) For non-living things, use itself.

e) For more than one person excluding you, use themselves
Themselves means one person relation to another, that is, to each other.
The word themselves means that each person
For example
James and John enjoy themselves last night.
What the above statement means is that, James enjoys himself last night and John also enjoys himself last night, separately. not that they both enjoy each other

Another example to clear the air:
The new couple enjoy themselves last night
What that statement means is that, the husband enjoys himself last night and the wife also enjoys herself last night. not that they both enjoy each other, not in sexuality waytop↑

f) For one, use oneself
E.g
1] One has to address oneself strictly to the task ahead.

g) For only you, use myself

Note : it is very wrong to use a reflexive pronoun as a subject of a sentence.
For example, it is wrong to say ;
1] Myself saw him. But I myself saw him.

It is also wrong to say ;
James and myself are friends, instead you say, James and I myself are friends.

h) Whenever each other is correct, one another is also correct because they both mean the same thing.top↑

E.g
1] They greeted each other or they greeted one another. Both are correct

I) There is nothing as Myselves, Ourself, itselves, theirself or theirselves, himselves or herselves, etc in the English language.

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d] Demonstrative pronoun it is pronoun that locates or points at person, thing, place and animal.
Demonstrative pronoun is of singular and plural forms.
E.g This, These, Those, that, etc.
Examples in sentences
1) This symbolizes unity and peace. ( singular demonstrative pronoun ).
2) These symbolize unity and peace. (Plural demonstrative pronoun).

e] Indefinite pronoun : is a pronoun that does not make reference to a particular person, place, animal or a thing.
E.g Everything, No one, Somebody, Anybody, Someone, Nothing, Something, Nobody, etc.
Examples in sentences;
1) Nobody knows tomorrow.
2) Everything depends on luck.top↑

f] Interrogative pronoun : it is a pronoun that is basically used to ask questions.
E.g What, Who, When, How, Why, etc

Examples in sentences
1) What distinguishes man from animal?.

2) Who is that ?.

3) Who wrote this essay ?.

g] Relative pronoun : is a pronoun that introduces clauses and link them to the antecedents.
E.g Who, Whose, Whom, That, Which.

Examples in sentences
1) The man whose car was stolen has arrived.

2) Mr John is a kind of person who puts God first.

I] Distributive pronoun : is the pronoun that shares effect of an action on either the subject or the object of a sentence.
E.g Neither nor, either or, one another, each other, etc.

Examples in sentences
1) The two friends like each other.
2) The new couple love one another.

j] Reciprocal pronoun : is a pronoun that shows a one-to-one relationship-to- a relationship based on reciprocity.
E.g
1) He saw me and I saw him, so we saw each other.
Note if the sense of one-to-one relationship is not suggested, please do not use each other, “i stressed that” “do not use”.

Next Topic : Anomalous Verbs » has, have and had

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