Previous Topic Noun And Pronoun
In the use of english language, there are three types of anomalous verb, which are has, have and had
We be analyzing the differences between has and have on one hand and, the difference between has or have and had, on the other hand.
a] Has is the .
b] Have is the .
c] Had is the of has and have.top↑
Let take a brief example on how has, have and had are used in a sentence before expressing their functions.
1) He not
2) She not
3) It not
4) I not
has do the chorus.
5) We not
has do the chorus.
6) You not
has been called.
7) They not
Note : Had can be used with any form of the sentence above.top↑
Now to their functions;
Functions Of Anomalous Verb
Anomalous verb have two broad functions;
a] Possession Function : This implies that, has or have or had can be or may mean possesses, e.g
1) She has .
You can see that in this example, has serve as a possesses and the only reason why its shows possession is because immediately.
Same as this two;
2) We had
3) They have top↑
b] Time-keeping Function : this function implies that, has or have or had and in that case, what comes after has or have or had is not a noun or noun phrase but a past participle verb, e.g
1) She has gone. (gone is the past participle)
Same as this three;
2) He has gone. (gone is the past participle)
3) They have left. (left is the past participle)
4) He had left. (left is the past participle)
In the use of english language, there are seven rules that guide the usage of anomalous verb in a sentence which will be analyzing now.top↑
Rules That Guide Usage Of Anomalous Verb
1] When has and have are used in a sentence, should be used at the adjunct level.
1) it is wrong to say,
He has left yesterday, because that yesterday has indicated definite time which shouldn’t have, but instead you say,
He has left since yesterday. “Since” coming before yesterday, indicated that a definite time has been specified.top↑
For can also be used in lieu of since, for example,
1) James has gone for two hours now. “For” coming before two hours, indicated that a definite time has been specified.
Or you can simply say,
James has went Or he has went.
1) you can only use since when no number of hours, minutes, years etc. Appears
Since yesterday not since three hours ago
2) For is used only when number of hours, minutes, years etc. Appears
James has gone for two hours, not james has gone for yesterdaytop↑
2] Has and have can appear in only one clause
1) She has left. (only one clause) not
//They have left// before //I arrived// (two clauses) instead you say;
//They left// before //I arrived//.
I hope you still remember that, “//” means clauses, I remembered telling you that during our class on the 24 rules of concord.
3] Any verb that comes after has/have/had should be in past participle form.top↑
1) She has left not
she has leave
2) The Governor has spoken not
the governor has speak or spoke.
3) The teachers have arrived not
the teachers have arrive or arove.
4] When had is to be used in the sense of the time-keeping function, that is, whenever there is a past participle verb before had, the sentence in which it appears should have , e.g
1) I lost my phone (clause 1)
2) I went to school (clause 2)
had can be used to join the two clauses together into one sentence, and whenever had is to join such two clauses together, one of the following adverbs should be used: before, after, no sooner..than, hardly had.. when and when, for example;
Joining the two clauses above together:
1) I had gone to school I lost my phone.top↑
2) Hardly had I gone to school or
i) I had hardly gone to school I lost my phone.
3) No sooner had I gone to school I lost my phone.
4) I lost my phone I had gone to school.
Note : On no circumstances should you have only one clause when you use had in its , e.g
He had left. (No, it is wrong)top↑
5] When reporting an action, had is preferred to has/have, e.g
1) The reporter said that he had gone (not : has or have)
Not only when a reporter is used, reporter as it is used above is just as a noun, the sentence could also be like this,
She said that she had left not
she has or have left.. I hoped you’ve understand now, let take one more example,
2) The man asked if she had seen his two kids, not
the man asked if she has/have seen his two kids.top↑
You can see that, in the above statement, either the subject or the object is reporting something. This rule also apply to when you use, asked (whether), suggested (that), supposed, said or when you opined (make an opinion), etc.
6] When if is used in a sentence as a condition, had is preferred to has/have. Also know that such sentence should contain two clauses
1) If I had seen you, (clause 1) I would have greeted you (clause 2) not
if I has or have seen you, I would have greeted you.
2) Had I know, (clause 1) I wouldn’t have followed him (clause 2) not
has or have I know, I wouldn’t have followed him..top↑
The last but not the least,
7] After has or have or had, if there is to be a choice between been and being, been should be chosen.
1) The man has been killed, not
the man has being killed.
2) He has been beaten by the bullies, not
he has being beaten by the bullies.top↑
Those are the seven rules in the usage of anomalous verb.
Now let take more examples.
1) She () the book to the library last week.
a] was returned
b] had returned
c] was to be returned
Using rule 1 to solve the question
“When has and have are used, , and last week is a definite time.
Hence, the answer d
She the book to the library last week.top↑
2) He has been here () the past five days.
Using rule 1 to solve the question;
“If has/have must be used in a clause, where there is definite time, for/since should be introduced before the definite time.
Hence, the answer is c
He has been here
3) Before the bill could be settled, James () all the money.
a] will spend
b] will have spent
c] has spent
d] had spent
Using rule 3 to solve the question
“Any verb that comes after has/have/had should be in past participle.”
Hence, the answer is c
Before the bill could be settled, James all the money.
The answer looks like it should be b right, No, using will, introduces another meaning, but if it is will have spent, it can still be considered.top↑
Have it in mind that, you will also answer some questions for me, don’t worry it will be as simple as the examples.
4) () your mom in the crowd, I would have told you immediately.
a] If should have see
b] If I saw
c] Should I have see
d] If I had seen
Using rule 6 to solve the question
“When if is used in a sentence as a condition, had is preferred to has/have”
Hence, the answer is d
If I had seen your mom in the crowd, I would have told you immediately.top↑
5) We later found out that some of our colleagues () another meeting before the one appointed.
a] had held
b] have been holding
c] had holding
d] has holding
Using rule 3 to solve the question,
“Any verb that comes after has/have/had should be in past participle form”
Hence, the answer is a,
We later found out that some of our colleagues another meeting before the one appointed.
Now your turn, below are your own questions, answer through the comment box or through the contact form below
Your Own Questions
1) We have been trying to locate you ().
a] Since the past three days
b] Three days now
c] For the past three days
d] For the past three day
Hint : rule 1
2) (), I would have helped you.
a] If you have asked me
b] If you had asked me
c] Had it been that you ask me
d] Has it been that you asked me
Hint : Rule 6
3) The traveller exclaimed that he () robbed.
a] Has being
b] Had been
c] Has been
d] Is Been
Hint : Rule 5
Those are your questions, submit your answer through the comment box or through the contact form below, I will be expecting your answers, thank you.top↑
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